Carole Estabrooks, CM, PhD, RN, FRSC, FCAHS, FAAN, FCAN

Professor, Faculty of Nursing


Professor, Faculty of Nursing
(780) 492-3451
5-183 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy
11405 - 87 Ave NW
Edmonton AB
T6G 1C9


Area of Study / Keywords

knowledge translation implementation science improvement science aging long term care



  • Postdoctoral fellowship, Institute of Clinical Evaluative Sciences & University of Toronto (2000)
  • PhD, Nursing, University of Alberta (1997)
  • MN, University of Alberta (1987)
  • BN, University of New Brunswick (1977)

I have been a member of the faculty and principal investigator of the Knowledge Utilization Studies Program since 1997 and the longitudinal, pan Canadian Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) research program since 2007. I hold a Tier I Canada Research Chair (CRC) in Knowledge Translation and am cross appointed in the School of Public Health, University of Alberta. I supervise undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral fellows and teach in the areas of knowledge translation and research design. My research focuses on basic and applied aspects of inquiry in the knowledge translation, knowledge utilization and implementation science fields, with a particular focus on congregate setting where older adults with dementia live (i.e., long term care or LTC). I have been the recipient of several awards and achievements among them, the J. Gordin Kaplan Award for Excellence in Research, University of Alberta, (2018), the International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame (2018), the Betty Havens Prize for Knowledge Translation in Aging (2014), the CAFA Distinguished Academic Award (2010), the Alumni Award of Distinction, University of New Brunswick (2007), the Alumni Horizon Award (2002), University of Alberta, and career scientist awards from CIHR/MRC (Health Scholar, 2000-2005) and AHFMR (Population Health Investigator, 2000-2003). In 2007 I was elected to Fellowship in the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (FCAHS). In 2011 I was inducted as a Fellow into the American Academy of Nurses (FAAN). In 2020 I was inducted as a Fellow into the Royal Society of Canada. I received the Order of Canada in 2016.


COVID-19 related research

I lead studies on:

  • The Impact of COVID-19 on staff and residents in LTC
  • Evaluating a practical strategy to manage stress related to the pandemic among front line LTC staff
  • The Experiences of care aides in LTC with residents having psychological trauma

Broadly, my research focuses on knowledge translation (KT) (also known as implementation science, innovation diffusion) – interventions to increase the use of evidence, the role of organizational context (work environment) in supporting knowledge translation, the effect of knowledge translation and other strategies on resident/patient and staff outcomes. I also focus increasingly on improvement methods and the sustainability, spread and scale-up of evidence informed innovations. My work also includes work on quality of care and quality of life in LTC homes, and on staff well-being, work life and mental health. I use a variety of research designs and mixed methods and have done research in various settings including acute care, home care and paediatrics but focus now exclusively in residential long term care settings (nursing homes). I led the development of the Alberta Context Tool© (ACT), currently being used in eight countries and six languages with active translation projects ongoing. The ACT measures modifiable elements of organizational context. I have capacity in various qualitative and quantitative methods. I mostly use an integrated KT or partnered approach, that is I work with policy and decision-makers at all levels, staff and citizens.

Active Projects: Principal Investigator

  • How missed care occurs in nursing homes. NPA: Estabrooks, C.A., PA: Cummings, G.G., Co-As: Mallidou, A., Olson, K., O’Rourke, H., Song, Y., Weeks, L. ($270,000).
  • Unsung Heroes: Long Term Care Staff’s Quality of Work Life. (Nova Scotia Health, 2021-2022). NPI: Keefe, J. Co-I: Estabrooks, C.A., Stevens, S. ($99,951)
  • Experiences of care aides in long-term care with residents having psychological trauma. (CIHR, Institute of Aging Prize: Yves Joanette Award of Excellent in Research in Aging). Estabrooks, C.A. ($28,000)
  • Experiences of care aides in long-term care with residents having psychological trauma. (CIHR, 2021-2023). NPA: Estabrooks, C.A. CoAs: Banerjee, S., Hegadoren, K., Lanius, R., McKinnon, M., Olson, K., Thorne, T. ($195,076)
  • How missed care occurs in nursing homes. NPA: Cummings, G. PA: Estabrooks, C.A. Co-As: Mallidou, A., Olson, K., O’Rourke, H., Song, Y., Weeks, L. ($100,000)
  • The impact of the COVID-l9 Pandemic on long term care home staff and residents. NPA: (CIHR 2021-2023). Estabrooks, C.A. PA: Cummings, G. CoAs: Banerjee, S., Beeber, A., Berta, W., Bryan, S., Cranley, L., Doupe, M., Ginsburg, L., Goodarzi, Z., Goodman, C., Gruneir, A., Hoben, M., Keefe, J., Poss, J. Reid, C., Seitz, D., Song, Y., Squires, J., Teare, G., Wagg, A., Weeks, L. ($756,890)
  • Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 in Alberta LTC (TREC) homes. (Alberta Health, 2021-2022). Estabrooks CA (NPI). Co-I's: Norton, PG, Hoben, M, Spires, J, Squires, J, Cummings, G, , Goodzari, Z, Doupe, M, Keefe, J, A, Poss, J, Schalm, C, Silvius J. ($571,000)
  • Contextually Appropriate Nurse Staffing Models: A Realist Review. (CIHR, 2020-2023). NPA: Cummings, G.G. PAs: Raymond, C., Kitson, A., Harvey, G., Tod, A., Booth, A., Schoonhoven, L., Lalleman, P. Co-As: Estabrooks, C.A., Doupe, M., Schultz, T., Ryan, T., Robertson, S., Hoben, M., Oostveen, C., Stalpers, D., Flynn, R., Tate, K. KU-Co-As: Gordon, D., Chilton, S., Villeneuve, M., Hutchinson, A., Debbage, S., Jackson, W. ($313,649)
  • The Influence of Context on Implementation and Improvement (ICII). (CIHR 2019-2023). Estabrooks CA (NPI), (CO-Is): Anderson R, Beeber A, Berta W, Chamberlain S, Cummings G, Easterbrook A, Hayduk L, Hoben M, Lanham H, Lo TKT, Norton PG, Song Y, (KUs): Anderson C, Connell K, Cook H, Forbes H, Schalm C, Sheppard I, Silvius J, Stevens S, Trinidad G, (Collabs): Elliott-Lopez V, Visockas AM. ($2,096,101)
  • Scalable data analytics and visualization portal for the Canadian long-term care sector. Estabrooks, C.A. (Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) & Economic Development and Trade (EDT) Alberta, 2019-2023). ($862, 213)
  • Sustainment, Sustainability, and Spread Study (SSaSSY). (CIHR, 2018-2021). Berta W (NPI), Estabrooks CA (Co-PI), Wagg SA (Co-PI) (Co-Is): Chamberlain SA, Clement F, Cranley L, Dopue M, Easterbrook A, Ginsburg L, Hoben M, Keefe J, Norton PG, Rappon T, Reid C, Song Y, Squires J, Anderson R, Poss J. ($967,724)
  • Longitudinal monitoring for quality of care at the end of life in nursing homes. (CIHR 2019-2020). Gruneir A (NPI), (Co-PIs): Estabrooks CA, Hoben M, (PKU): Silvius J, (Co-Is): Berta W, Bronskill S, Chamberlain SA, Cummings GG, Doupe M, Easterbrook A, Lo TKT, Poss J, (KUs): Anderson C, Forbes H, Sheppard I, Trinidad G, (Collabs): Gish J, Good A, Kemp K, McBain K, Murphy R, Visockas A-M, Kieloch B, Marshall S. ($512,551)
  • Safer Care for Older People in (residential) Environments (SCOPE). (CIHR, 2016-2019). Wagg AS (PI), Estabrooks CA (Co-PI), (Co-Is): Andersen E, Anderson M, Anderson R, Baunbusch J, Berta WB, Clement F, Cranley L, Cummings G, Dearing J, Doupe M, Ginsburg L, Holroyd-Leduc J, Keefe J, Knopp-Sihota J, Lanham H, McGregor M, Norton P, Profetto-McGrath J, Reid C, Senthilselvan S, Smith M, Squires J, Collaborators: Anderson C, Collins M, Dewar L, Dacombe Dewar L, Forbes H, Kozak-Campbell C, Lamont L, McKenzie I, Mansell L, McLeod D, Regier C, Risling E, Taylor D, Thompson G, Trinidad G, Schultz M. ($913,577).
  • TREC: Translating Research in Elder Care. (CIHR & Partner Funds, 2014-2020). Estabrooks CA (PI), (Co-Is): Berta W, Cranley L, Cummings GG, Dearing J, Doupe M, Ginsburg L, Hayduk L, Keefe J, Norton P, Reid C, Senthilselvan A, Smith M, Squires J, Teare G, , Wagg A, (KUs): Anderson C, Bloemink K, Cook H, Davidson H, Risling E, Schalm C, Taylor D, Trinidad G. ($9.4M).

Active Projects: Co-Investigator

  • COPE LTC Study: Care pathway for Older Persons with depressive disorders in Long Term Care. (CIHR 2021-2023). NPA: Goodarzi, Z., PAS: Hoben, M., Seltz, D., Virk, N., Bruneau, M., Estabrooks, C.A. Ewa, V., Fox, L., Gruneir, A., Holroyd-Leduc, J., Ismail, Z., Knopp-Sihota, J., Poss, J. Quail, P., Sutherland, J. Watt, J. ($240,976)
  • Improving pain assessment in nursing home residents with dementias. (CIHR, 2018-2021). Knopp-Sihota J (NPI), Doupe M, Estabrooks CA, Hoben M, Kaasalainen S, Parker D, Poss J, Thompson G, (Collaborators): Mann J, VanWicklin C. ($577,574)
  • Effective Knowledge Translation Strategies for Enhancing Impact and Improving Outcomes in Infant Pain. (CIHR, 2016-2023). Stevens B (PI), Program Experts: Barwock M, Campbell-Yeo M, Chambers C, Estabrooks CA, Gibbins S, Harrison D, Isaranuwatchai W, Le May S, Noel M, Slotta J, Stinson J, Synnes A, Willan A, Yamada J. ($3,823,346).
  • Inappropriateness of health care in Canada. (CIHR, 2018-2020). Squires J (NPI), Grinspun D (Co-PI), Bornstein S, Brien S, Dobrow M, Estabrooks CA, Graham I, Greenough M, Grimshaw J, Hillmer M, Horsley T, Katz A, Krause C, Lavis J, Levinson W, Levy A, Légaré F, Majumdar S, Mancuso M, Morgan S, Nadalin Penno L, Neuner A, Teare G, Tepper J, Vandyk A, Widmeyer D, Wilson M; (Collaborators): Bell R, Maybee A, Rader T, Roberts J. ($275,400)
  • Improving assessment of pain in nursing home residents with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias. (Alzheimer Society of Canada, 2015-2018). Knopp-Sihota JA (PI), (Co-Is): Estabrooks CA, Squires JE, Hoben M, Poss J. ($120,000)
  • Evaluating the economic impact and quality of care of the Smart-e-Pants innovation for pressure ulcer prevention. (CIHR, 2014-2018). Mushahwar VK (NPI), (Co-PIs): Dukelow S, McCabe C, Zygun D, (Co-Is): Chan M, Estabrooks CA, Ferguson-Pell M, Ho C, Holroyd-Leduc J, Norris C, Sharma A, Stein R, Tredget E, Tsukuki R. ($750,000)
  • Evaluating aging in place initiatives: A pan-Canadian meeting to develop research priorities and a research grant. (CIHR, 2019-2020). Hoben M (NPI), Estabrooks CA (Co-PI). ($20,000)


I teach in the areas of knowledge translation, policy analysis, research design and methods, and organizational and health care outcomes. I typically mentor graduate students whose interests are in how organizations influence resident (patient) outcomes, provider outcomes, the use of best practices, and/or whose interests lie in the use of implementation and improvement science and other methods to positively influence outcomes. In addition to graduate students I supervise postdoctoral fellows and honors undergraduate students. Several CIHR, CFN and AI (previously AIHS) funded post doctoral fellows currently work with me. I have taught NURS 683 (Advanced Design) and I developed and have taught INT D 690 (Topics in Knowledge Utilization) many times. I have also taught NURS 503 (Research Methods), NURS 600 (Theory Development) and NURS 699 (Dissertation Seminar).

Current Trainees

Postdoctoral Fellows

  • Alba Iaconi, PhD (University of Michigan)
  • Yinfei, PhD (University of Minnesota)
  • Tannaz Saeidzadeh (University of Iowa)

Doctoral Students

  • Ashikur Rahman
  • Brittany DeGraves
  • Trina Thorne

Masters Students

  • Helen Doan, BScN (University of Alberta) [successfully defended March 24, 2021]
  • Meghan Richardson, BScN (University of Alberta)

Honours Undergraduate Students

  • Jillian Engen
  • Aileen Kim
  • Jingyi He
  • Sydney Slubik

For a complete list of trainees visit the KUSP Website.


I currently have a 1-2 year postdoctoral position available. This is a grant funded position starting Sept 1 or sooner, to work on advanced analyses of several waves of high quality survey data from all levels of staff in LTC homes, and in our linkable resident administrative database, as well as, in a much larger provincial resident database. This opportunity includes a major project with Alberta Health. E-mail me for further details. Candidates must be able to work independently and have strong quantitative skills and the ability to work in large databases; familiarity with SAS would be an asset. Expertise in SPSS, STATA, R and/or other software program is required. Interested candidates will need to submit: (1) a detailed cover letter describing how the candidate’s background and previous training fit the qualifications of the position and their ability to meet the duties and responsibilities outlined, (2) the cover letter should reflect some familiarity with the TREC program, (3) a curriculum vitae, and (4) the contact information of academic references (and a decision-maker reference if applicable) to:

I am currently accepting PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, as well as, honors undergraduate students and thesis master's students. My research program offers significant opportunity to work with and publish from an extensive and rich longitudinal database - for theses, postdoctoral and other projects. Students who are interested in applying for competitive extramural program funding should read information on relevant sites (e.g., CIHR, Alberta Innovates (AI), Alzheimer's Society, MITACS, etc.). These programs are highly competitive and require a very high GPA and depending on the level of award, good quality peer reviewed publications (the more senior, the higher the requirements), outside interests and volunteer experience. The CIHR Vainer (PhD) studies and CIHR Banting (post doctoral studies) are the most competitive awards in Canada. Competitive students will be supported to apply. Similarly competitive honours and general undergraduate students will also be supported for summer funding (CFN, SCN, and AI, as well as, MITACS international research exchange programs).

If your research interests are aligned with my program of research and area of expertise, I welcome your requests. However, whether I accept a request for supervision will depend on: (a) whether I currently have capacity to supervise another student or postdoctoral fellow, and (b) whether the student or postdoctoral fellow's research interests are aligned with my own program of research and areas of expertise. Before reaching out, please make sure to carefully read what areas of research I focus on and research methods in which I have expertise. I will only respond to requests that:

  • Clearly demonstrate that the trainee has read and understood my areas of research and expertise
  • Include an initial idea of a research topic the trainee wants to work on with me
  • Outline how the proposed research idea is aligned with my areas of research and expertise
  • Include the student's CV


Nursing Home Managers’ High Risk for Burnout.

Author(s): Iaconi, A., Duan, Y., Tate, K., Penconek, T., Cummings, G., Norton, P., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 2022
Publication: JAMDA
Volume: 23
Page Numbers: 173-4
DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2021.08.045

How does the facilitation effort of clinical educator interact with aspects of organizational context to affect research use in long-term Care? Evidence from CHAID analysis

Author(s): Lo, T., Boamah, S., Poss, J., Teare, G.F., Norton, P.G., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 11/30/2021
Publication: Jrnl Nurs Scholarship
Volume: 53
Issue: 6
DOI: 10.1111/jnu.12690
External Link:

Rushing care by care aides associated with experiences of verbal and physical responsive behaviours from residents in nursing homes.

Author(s): Song, Y, Thorne, T.E., Norton, P.G., Poss, J., DeGraves, B., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 11/21/2021
Publication: JAMDA
DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2021.10.017

Psychometric properties and use of the DEMQOL suite of instruments in research: a systematic review protocol

Author(s): Hoben, M., Chamberlain, S., O’Rourke, H., Elliott, B., Shrestha, S., Devkota, R., Thorne, T., Lam, J., Banerjee, S., Hughes, L., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 2021
Publication: JAMDA
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-04131811

Fidelity is not easy! Challenges and guidelines for assessing fidelity in complex Interventions

Author(s): Ginsburg, L., Hoben, M., Easterbrook, A., Anderson, R., Estabrooks, C.A., Norton, P. 22
Publication Date: 2021
Publication: Trials
Volume: 22
Issue: 1

Staffing for quality in Canadian long-term care homes

Author(s): Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 2021
Publication: Healthcare Papers
Volume: 20
Issue: 1
Page Numbers: 40-50
DOI: 10.12927/hcpap.2021.26641

Sustained effects of the INFORM cluster randomized trial: an observational post-intervention study.

Author(s): Hoben, M., Ginsburg, L. R., Norton, P. G., Doupe, M. B., Berta, W. B., Dearing, J. W., Keefe, J. M., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 2021
Publication: Implementation Science
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Page Numbers: 83
DOI: 10.1186/s13012-021-01151-x

Pre-pandemic baseline: Frontline workforce in nursing homes.

Author(s): Song, Y., Iaconi, A., Chamberlain, S., Cummings, G., Hoben, M., Keefe, J., Norton, P., Reid, R.C., Squires, J., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 10/23/2020
Publication: JAMA Network Open
Volume: 3:1
External Link:

Examining fidelity in the INFORM trial, a complex team-based behavioural intervention.

Author(s): Ginsburg, L., Hoben, M., Easterbrook, A., Andersen, E., Anderson, R., Cranley, L., Lanham, H., Norton, P., Weeks, L., Estabrooks, C.A
Publication Date: 9/16/2020
Publication: Implementation Science
Volume: 15:78
External Link:

Comparing effects of two higher intensity feedback interventions with simple feedback on improving staff communication in nursing homes – The INFORM cluster-randomized controlled trial

Author(s): Hoben, M., Ginsburg, L., Easterbrook, A., Norton, P., Anderson, R., Andersen, E., Boström, A-M., Cranley, L., Lanham, H., Weeks, L., Cummings, G., Holroyd-Leduc, J., Squires, J., Wagg, A., Estabrooks, C.A.
Publication Date: 9/10/2020
Publication: Implementation Science
Volume: 15:75
External Link:

Restoring Trust: Covid-19 and the Future of Long-Term Care.

Author(s): Estabrooks, C.A., Armstrong, P., Boscart, V., Donner, G., Ducharme, F., Flood, C., Keefe, J., Silvius, J., Straus, S., Wolfson, M.
Publication Date: 2/8/2020
Publication: FACETS
Volume: 5: 651–691
External Link:

Association of Work Environment With Missed and Rushed Care Tasks Among Care Aides in Nursing Homes

Author(s): Song Y, Hoben M, Norton PG, Estabrooks CA
Publication Date: 1/29/2020
Publication: JAMA Network Open
Volume: 3
Issue: 1
Page Numbers: e1920092
External Link:

Who is (still) looking after mom and dad? Few improvements in care aides’ quality-of-work life

Author(s): Chamberlain SA, Hoben M, Squires JE, Cummings GG, Norton PG, Estabrooks CA
Publication Date: 3/1/2019
Publication: Canadian Journal on Aging
Volume: 38
Issue: 1
Page Numbers: 35-50
External Link:

The Canadian Dementia Challenge: Ensuring optimal care and services for those at risk or with dementia throughout the country

Author(s): Feldman HH, Estabrooks CA
Publication Date: 4/20/2017
Publication: Canadian Journal of Public Health
Volume: 108
Issue: 1
Page Numbers: e95-e97
External Link:

Pathways for best practice diffusion: The structure of informal relationships in Canada’s long-term care sector

Author(s): Dearing JW, Beacom AM, Chamberlain SA, Meng J, Berta WB, Keefe JM, Squires JE, Doupe MB, Taylor D, Reid RC, Cook H, Cummings GG, Baumbusch JL, Knopp-Sihota J, Norton PG, Estabrooks CA
Publication Date: 2/3/2017
Publication: Implementation Science
Volume: 12
Issue: 11
External Link:

Dying in a nursing home: Treatable symptom burden and its link to modifiable features of work context

Author(s): Estabrooks CA, Hoben M, Poss JW, Chamberlain SA, Thompson GN, Silvius JL, Norton PG
Publication Date: 2015
Publication: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume: 16
Issue: 6
Page Numbers: 515-520
External Link: