This is the first of two consecutive courses that provide an overview of evidence used by communities, governments, health systems, and academics to inform public health actions. This course covers practical contexts within which public health evidence is used, philosophical and disciplinary assumptions shaping views on what evidence is relevant for decision-making, and ethical and equity dimensions of evidence creation and use. Fundamental biostatistical, epidemiologic, and measurement concepts are introduced in the context of descriptive, analytic, and causal research questions, and study designs used to answer them. SPH 535 is a required course for the degree of Master of Public Health in General Public Health. Prerequisite: SPH 530. Corequisites: SPH 536, SPH 541, and SPH 562, or consent of instructor.