An exploration of concepts and theories used to explain why poor health and health inequities occur within and across populations, including Indigenous and other racialized populations (etiology), and interventions public health practitioners use to change complex systems to address factors that contribute to these problems. Etiologic topics include conceptions of health and wellness; population health vs. clinical care; historical and global trends in population mortality, morbidity, and health inequities; causal and systems thinking, and the impact of biological, behavioural, sociocultural, political-economic, and environmental factors on population health and health inequities. Intervention topics include advocacy, community and systems capacity building, and implementation of policies, and programs that support key public health functions - health promotion and protection, the prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases and injury, and emergency preparedness and response, governance, infrastructure, financing and organization. Intersectoral partnership, collaborative action, and political will are reviewed to support health in all policies to improve public health. SPH 562 is a required course for the degree of Master of Public Health in General Public Health. Prerequisites: SPH 530. Corequisites: SPH 535, SPH 536, SPH 541, or consent of instructor.