This is an advanced epidemiology methods course with emphasis on causal inference. Topics covered include causal inference in observational studies, causal diagrams, effect modification, interaction, selection and measurement bias in causal modelling, propensity score analysis, inverse probability weighting and marginal structural models, standardization and the parametric g-formula, instrumental variable estimation, and mediation analysis. The overall goal of this course is to provide an understanding of concepts and practical applications of causal inference and prepare graduates to understand and apply these concepts in epidemiological research. Prerequisites: SPH 619 and 696 or consent of Instructor. Note: Credit may not be obtained for both PHS 766 and SPH 766.