Soil classification with a focus on soil genesis as influenced by soil forming factors and processes. Spatial variability of soil types within landscapes in association with vegetation, parent geological materials, hillslope hydrology and microclimate. Soils as components of ecosystems and their relation to environmental issues. Distribution of soils in Canada. Field trips. Requires payment of additional student instructional support fees. Refer to the Tuition and Fees page in the University Regulations section of the Calendar.Not to be be taken if credit received for REN R 441 or REN R 741.