# GEOPH - Geophysics

Offered By:

Faculty of Science

Below are the courses available from the GEOPH code. Select a course to view the available classes, additional class notes, and class times.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

How do we know what is inside the Earth and planets? What are the dynamic processes that shape the Earth? This course will use a physics-based approach to investigate these questions and develop an explanation for what drives plate tectonics, the origin of planetary magnetic fields, and the causes of hazards such as earthquakes and volcanoes. You will learn about the methods that are used to image the interior structure and dynamics of the Earth and other planets. You will also learn how these methods are applied in resource exploration, environmental monitoring, satellite missions to other planets and moons, and other scientific studies of the Earth system. The different career options available in geophysics will be discussed. Prerequisites: Physics 20 and Mathematics 30. Note: Credit will be given for only one of GEOPH 110 or 210.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

This course presents an overview of the interior structure, composition, dynamics, and evolution of the Earth, planets, and moons. Topics to be covered include: formation of the solar system; planets and exoplanets; the plate tectonics revolution; mountain building and continental dynamics; earthquakes, volcanoes, and other geo-hazards; Earth's interior structure and dynamics from seismology, gravity, and magnetism; the rotational dynamics of planetary bodies; mantle convection and dynamos. Prerequisites: Physics 20 and Mathematics 30. Note: credit will be given for only one of GEOPH 110 or GEOPH 210.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3)**

Near-surface geophysical imaging techniques with focus on applications in hydrogeology, glaciology, and environmental studies; rock properties; imaging methods covered include: shallow seismic exploration, magnetic exploration, radiometric techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); electromagnetic (EM) methods; ground penetrating radar (GPR), application to environmental monitoring, climate change, environmental legislation. Prerequisites: Mathematics 30 and Physics 20. Note: Not available to students in Honors or Specialization Geophysics.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3)**

Geophysical exploration with focus on techniques relevant to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration; gravity and magnetic exploration techniques; basics of seismic wave propagation in Earth; seismic data processing; the geological interpretation of seismic reflection and refraction data. Prerequisites: Physics 20 and Mathematics 30. Note: Not available to students in Honors or Specialization Geophysics. Note: offered alternate years only. Consult Department for course schedule.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Theory of gravity, shape of the earth, nature of the geomagnetic field, magnetic, and electrical exploration methods; factors controlling density, resistivity, magnetic properties of rocks, and planetary studies; applications in environmental geophysics, continental dynamics, and mineral exploration; instrumentation. Analysis of gravitational, magnetic, and resistivity data. Prerequisite: PHYS 281 or 230, MATH 215 or 209 or 317 or MA PH 351.

## Starting: 2024-09-01 GEOPH 325 - Geophysical Imaging of Earth's Interior

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Theory of gravity, shape of the earth, nature of the geomagnetic field, magnetic, and electrical exploration methods; factors controlling density, resistivity, magnetic properties of rocks, and planetary studies; applications in environmental geophysics, continental dynamics, and mineral exploration; instrumentation. Analysis of gravitational, magnetic, and resistivity data. Prerequisite: MATH 215 or 209 or 315 or 317 or MA PH 351.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Use of reflection and refraction seismology to image the Earth's interior, including application to environmental assessment, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, geothermal energy, and tectonics; study of current technologies used to acquire, image, and interpret 2D and 3D data sets. Real data sets and computer assignments will be used to produce seismic images of the subsurface. Prerequisite: PHYS 281 or 230, MATH 215 or 209 or 317 or MA PH 351.

## Starting: 2024-09-01 GEOPH 326 - Seismic Imaging of Earth's Interior

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Use of reflection and refraction seismology to image the Earth's interior, including application to environmental assessment, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, geothermal energy, and tectonics; study of current technologies used to acquire, image, and interpret 2D and 3D data sets. Real data sets and computer assignments will be used to produce seismic images of the subsurface. Prerequisite: MATH 215 or 209 or 315 or 317 or MA PH 351.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Overview of the fundamental physical properties of geophysically important materials; physics involved in the measurement of physical properties in the Earth especially in the context of geophysical well logging and laboratory measurement; integration of measurements with geological and geophysical field observations. Prerequisites: Any 100-level PHYS course or EN PH 131, Any 100-level MATH course.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Seismology and earthquakes; travel-time, amplitude, and waveform computations; body and surface waves; normal modes and free oscillations; source mechanisms; Earth's structure from inversion of teleseismic observations; seismometers; earthquake hazards and risks. Pre or corequisite: MATH 215 or 209 or 317, and any 300-level GEOPH course. Note: Credit may be obtained for only one of GEOPH 421 and GEOPH 541.

## Starting: 2024-09-01 GEOPH 421 - Seismology and the Physical Structure of the Earth

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Seismology and earthquakes; travel-time, amplitude, and waveform computations; body and surface waves; normal modes and free oscillations; source mechanisms; Earth's structure from inversion of teleseismic observations; seismometers; earthquake hazards and risks. Pre or corequisite: MATH 215 or 209 or 315 or 317, and any 300-level GEOPH course. Note: Credit may be obtained for only one of GEOPH 421 and GEOPH 541.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Theory and application of Maxwell's equations to geophysics; resistivity of rocks, electromagnetic exploration; magnetotellurics, frequency and time domain EM methods, forward and inverse techniques to image crustal and mantle structures. Analysis of EM data collected at field school. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 337. Prerequisites: PHYS 281 or 230, 381, GEOPH 325.

## Starting: 2024-09-01 GEOPH 424 - Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Theory and application of Maxwell's equations to geophysics; resistivity of rocks, electromagnetic exploration; magnetotellurics, frequency and time domain EM methods, forward and inverse techniques to image crustal and mantle structures. Analysis of EM data collected at field school. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 337. Prerequisites: PHYS 381, GEOPH 325.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Application of time-series analyses and image-processing techniques to large geophysical data sets; sampling and aliasing of signals; one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms; the Z transformation; spectral analysis, filtering, and deconvolution; application of 1D and 2D filtering to geophysical data analysis, processing and decomposition. Prerequisites: MATH 311, GEOPH 326, PHYS 234 or equivalent. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 426 and GEOPH 526.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Quantitative methods to determine the physical properties of the Earth from indirect geophysical observations; formal treatment of geophysical inverse theory; topics include linear and nonlinear inverse problems, regularization techniques, model norms and misfit, tomography, and case histories of interpretation and analysis. Prerequisites: MATH 311. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 431 and GEOPH 531.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(FIRST, 10 DAYS)**

Students conduct a wide variety of geophysical field measurements and process and interpret the collected data. The field component of the course is usually run immediately prior to the fall term. Requires payment of additional student instructional support fees. Refer to the Tuition and Fees page in the University Regulations section of the Calendar. Prerequisites: GEOPH 325 or 326, or consent of instructor. Intended for students in a Geophysics program. Students in other programs should contact the Department of Physics for permission. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 436 and GEOPH 536.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 0-0-6)**

A variety of seismic and ground-penetrating radar data sets are corrected, enhanced, and imaged using commercial and student-written software, to reveal subsurface structures. Results obtained by the student will be presented as professional technical reports. Prerequisites: GEOPH 326, PHYS 234 or equivalent. Pre- or corequisite: GEOPH 426. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 438 and GEOPH 538.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 2-1S-0)**

Topics to be discussed include plate tectonics; continental breakup and assembly; faulting and earthquakes; mantle and lithosphere rheology; global gravity and Earth's rotation; deep Earth structures; heat transfer and convection in the Earth; dynamics of the core; planetary magnetism and the geodynamo; application to other planets. Prerequisites: Any 200-level GEOPH course, or any 300-level GEOPH course, or any 200-level PHYS course. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 440 and GEOPH 521.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 2-1S-0)**

Topics to be discussed include plate tectonics; continental breakup and assembly; faulting and earthquakes; mantle and lithosphere rheology; global gravity and Earth's rotation; deep Earth structures; heat transfer and convection in the Earth; dynamics of the core; planetary magnetism and the geodynamo; application to other planets. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 440 and GEOPH 521.Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-3/2)**

Theory and application of Maxwell's equations to geophysics; resistivity of rocks, electromagnetic exploration; magnetotellurics, frequency and time domain EM methods, forward and inverse techniques to image crustal and mantle structures. Analysis of EM data collected at field school. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Note: This course cannot be taken for credit if credit has already been given for GEOPH 424.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Application of time-series analyses and image-processing techniques to large geophysical data sets; sampling and aliasing of signals; one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms; the Z transformation; spectral analysis, filtering, and deconvolution; application of 1D and 2D filtering to geophysical data analysis, processing, and decomposition. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 426 and GEOPH 526. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Quantitative methods to determine the physical properties of the Earth from indirect geophysical observations; formal treatment of geophysical inverse theory; topics include linear and nonlinear inverse problems, regularization techniques, model norms and misfit, tomography, and case histories of interpretation and analysis. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 431 and GEOPH 531.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(FIRST, 10 DAYS)**

Students conduct a wide variety of geophysical field measurements and process and interpret the collected data. The field component of the course is usually run immediately prior to the fall term. Requires payment of additional student instructional support fees. Refer to the Tuition and Fees page in the University Regulations section of the Calendar. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 436 and GEOPH 536.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 0-0-6)**

A variety of seismic and ground-penetrating radar data sets are corrected, enhanced, and imaged using commercial and student-written software, to reveal subsurface structures. Results obtained by the student will be presented as professional technical reports. Note: credit may only be obtained for one of GEOPH 438 and GEOPH 538. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

Seismology and earthquakes; travel-time, amplitude, and waveform computations; body and surface waves; normal modes and free oscillations; source mechanisms; Earth's structure from inversion of teleseismic observations; seismometers; earthquake hazards and risks. Prerequisites: consent of instructor. Note: Credit may be obtained for only one of GEOPH 421 and GEOPH 541.

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**

**★ 3 (fi 6)(EITHER, 3-0-0)**